THE S,P,D,F, ORBITALS ...............................................................
  S =SPHERICAL
AS YOU RECALL THE SPIN ANGLE OF THE  ELECTRON
IN HYDRON ATOMS CONSTANTLY SHIFTS ITS ORBITAL
UNTIL IT TOTALLY ENCLOSES THE NUCLEUS
IN A SPHERE-LIKE BALL OF ENERGY...
AN ATOM OF HYDRON
THE FIRST S ORBITAL IMAGE, SHOWS THE PATTERN,
OF ELECTRON HITS, ON HYDRON'S, LONE ELECTRON.
THE SECOND IMAGE, SHOWS THE ELECTRON HITS ON,
A FROZEN, SECOND ELECTRON ORBITALS LOCATION
THE DASHED LINE, INDICATES, THAT THE ELECTRON,
GRADUALLY ENCLOSES, THE INNER SPHERE,
MAKING A LARGER SPHERE OF ENERGY, AS IN HELION.
          1                  2                      3
  S ORBITAL + S ORBITAL = HELION
IMAGES OF S SPHERICAL ORBITALS
THE THIRD IMAGE, SHOWS 2 SPHERICAL S ORBITALS,
ONE INSIDE THE OTHER, ALSO AS IN, HELION ATOMS
       P=PERPENDICULAR
THE ELECTRONS IN P PERPENDICULAR ORBITALS
      DO NOT HAVE SPIN ANGLES & THEREFORE,
THEY DO NOT MAKE SPHERICAL BALLS OF ENERGY
THIS "P"ORBITAL GROUP, FROM +1 BONDED, POTASION,
 IT WAS MADE, BY 6 ELECTRONS,  IN COLLAPSED,
ORBITAL LOCATIONS, RESULTING FROM THE -230°C
TEMPERATURES, USED, TO SLOW THE ELECTRONS.




A POTASION  P ORBITAL
THERE ARE GROUPED P ORBITALS, IN URANION,
PLUTONE, SAMARION, VANADION, CERION & HAFNION.
THE PAIRED & GROUPED P ORBITALS, ARE IMPORTANT,
TO CHEMISTS, WHO TRY TO MAKE, DOUBLE BONDS.
THIS LEED STUDY, WAS MADE AT -216°C AND SHOWS,
5 ELECTRONS, IN COLLAPSED ORBITAL LOCATIONS,
THAT RESULT FROM, THE SUB-ZERO TEMPERATURE.



GROUPED HAFNION P ORBITALS

PAIRED P ORBITALS, AS FOUND IN CARBON,
AND SILICON ATOMS, WITH TWO S ORBITALS,
WITHIN THE TWO PAIRED P  ORBITALS
THE CLOVERLEAF SHAPED ORBITALS,.
OFTEN SHOWN IN SCIENCE BOOKS, ARE MADE OF
THE GROUPED ORBITALS IN ATOMS, THAT HAD BEEN
PROGRESSIVELY FROZEN FOR 12 YEARS,
TO TEMPERATURES NEAR ABSOLUTE ZERO,-273°C
THE ACTUAL ORBITALS OF MOST ATOMS ARE CLOSER
          TO THE IMAGES SHOWN ON THE PAGE
                     THE ELECTRON ORBITALS
A ELECTRON DIFFRATION STUDY
OF CARBON'S ORBITALS
AT -182°C
     D = DIAGONAL
D ORBITALS NORMALLY ARE DIAGONAL ORBITALS
OR SEVERAL DIAGONAL ORBITALS
ONE INSIDE THE OTHER, AS SHOWN RIGHT.
THEY OFTEN HAVE A P ORBITAL, WITHIN THE X,
OF THE TWO DIAGONAL ORBITAL GROUPS.
 
"D" DIAGONAL  ORBITALS
F = FLOWER SHAPED
WE MUST REMEMBER THAT THE LETTERS,
P, D AND F USUALLY REFER TO A GROUP
OF ELECTRON ORBITALS, OFTEN WITH,
 A COMMON SPIN ANGLE,
WHICH ALSO IS CALLED,THEIR ANGULAR MOMENTUM,
OR THEIR QUANTUM LEVEL.
THIS STUDY MADE AT  APPROXIMATELY -25°C
IS OF ITRION'S ORBITALS, WHEN BONDED TO HYDRON.

 A FLOWER LIKE  F ORBITAL GROUP

THE SYMBOLS: S, P, D & F WERE CREATED, BY RESEARCHERS,
WHO HAD TO WORK, WITH ATOMS, WHOSE ELECTRON ORBITALS,
HAD BEEN SLOWED AND COLLAPSED, DO TO THE SUPER COLD,
-250°C TEMPERATURES, THAT THE ELECTRON DIFFRACTION
EQUIPMENT, IN USE IN 1932, REQUIRED.
IN ADDITION, THE ELECTRON DIFFRACTION EQUIPMENT, SHOT  
ITS ELECTRONS, AT A VERY ACUTE ANGLE, WHICH MADE IT HARD,
AND OFTEN IMPOSSIBLE, TO STRIKE ELECTRON ORBITALS,
THAT WERE PARALLEL, TO THE DIRECTION OF THE MOVEMENT,
OF THE INCOMING ELECTRONS, OF THE DIFFRACTION EQUIPMENT.
THE MORE RECENT ORBITAL STUDYS, SHOWN  IN THE ATOMIC RESEARCH
THAT WERE USED, TO CREATE ALL THE ELECTRON ORBITAL DRAWINGS,
ARE MUCH MORE ACCURATE AND SHOULD DISPEL ANY CONFUSION,
ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONCEPTS, RELATED TO S,P D & F ORBITAL GROUPS.

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