WHAT ARE THE ALKANES ?
METHANE..ETHANE...PROPANE..BUTANE..PENTANE
 C = CBN = CARBON
 H = HDR = HYDRON
CH4 =1.CBN+4.HDR
THE SMALL ALKANE,
METHANE - CH4
  ALKANES ARE GAS or LIQUID MOLECULES MADE OF,
  CARBON and HYDRON ATOMS  ( HYDROM = HYDROGEN )
  THAT ALL HAVE THE GENERAL FORMULA,
     ( n )CBN  + ( 2n+2 )HDR
  WHERE, n = THE NUMBER OF CARBON ATOMS
  FOR EXAMPLE, METHANE IS THE SMALLEST ALKANE,
  ITS FORMULA IS:  1.CBN + 4.HDR = CH4
                             ( n = 1  +  2n+2 = 4 )
METHANE = C1H4
2+2=4
ETHANE = C2H6
4+2=6
PROPANE =C3H8
6+2=8
BUTANE = C4H10
8+2=10
PENTANE = C5H12
10+2-12
   HYDRON  IS THE EASY WAY TO SAY THE NAME FOR HYDROGEN
 
   THE ALKANE GASES
TETRA-HEDRON MODEL
MOLECULAR FORM
DESCRIPTION
        METHANE:
1.CBN+4.HDR = CH4

WHEN ONE ATOM OF CARBON COMBINES WITH
4 ATOMS OF THE GAS HYDRON,THEY FORM,
ONE MOLECULE OF THE GAS  METHANE
METHANE IS ALSO CALLED SWAMP GAS,  
BECAUSE  IT IS CREATED AS A RESULT,
OF THE DECAY OF GRASS and PLANTS.
C = CBN     H = HDR
ETHANE :
2.CBN+6.HDR = H3C+CH3

ETHANE IS A NATURAL GAS
USED BY PLANTS IN THEIR LEAVES
IT HAS 2 CARBON ATOMS + 6 HYDRON ATOMS
THE METHYLS: H3C & CH3 ARE ALSO WRITTEN:  
 HCH2 & H2CH..IN CHEMICAL FORMULAS
 
PROPANE:
3.CBN+8.HDR
=
H3C+CH2+CH3

PROPANE IS A NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC GAS
USED AS A COOKING GAS and HEATING FUEL
IT HAS 3 CARBON ATOMS and 8 HYDRON ATOMS

 BUTANE:
4.CBN+10.HDR
=  
H3C+CH2+CH2+CH3
BUTANE IS A NATURAL GAS OR,
A SYNTHETIC GAS,MADE FROM PETROLEUM,
IT IS USED AS A FUEL IN BUSES and AIRPLANES.
BUTANE IS NOT A GOOD COOKING GAS,
BECAUSE IT CAUSES CYSTS IN WOMEN.
IT HAS 4 CARBON ATOMS + 10 HYDRON ATOMS
PENTANE:
5.CBN+12.HDR
=
H3C + CH2 + CH2 + CH2 + CH3
PENTANE IS A SYNTHETIC GAS,
MADE FROM NATURAL PETROLEUM OILS,
IT IS USED IN MANY BUSES and PLANES
IT HAS 5 CARBON ATOMS + 12 HYDRON ATOMS

TETRA  METHYL METHANE:
 5.CBN+12.HDR
TETRA METHYL METHANE GAS
IS A NATURAL ALKANE MADE BY PINE TREES
IT IS USED,IN THEIR BARK & PINE CONES
AS A NATURAL ANTI-RODENT PESTICIDE
IT IS ALSO A PENTANE ALKANE ISOMER
THAT IS USED,IN MANY MAN MADE SPRAYS
USED TO DESTROY RATS and FLEAS
   4(CH3)+C or C(CH3)4

A            A
AUTOMOBILE FUELS
AA
TETRA-HEDRON MODELS
MOLECULE
DESCRIPTION
HEPTANE
7.CBN+16.HDR
PETROLEUM CHEMISTS,CALL THIS MOLECULE,
BORE 7 HEPTANE and or NATURAL HEPTANE
IT IS THE TYPE OF GASOLINE USED IN MOTORS,
OF VEHICLES WITH LARGE CYLINDER HEADS

H3C + CH2 + CH2 + CH2 + CH2 + CH2 + CH3
CH3
+
H3C + H2C + C + CH2 + CH3
+
CH3
PETROLEUM CHEMISTS,CALL THIS MOLECULE,
BOTH, BORE HEPTANE and  ISOHEPTANE,
BECAUSE,THE TWO CENTRAL METHYLS,
ARE SPACED EQUALLY FROM BOTH ENDS..
IT IS USED BY MORE DELIIVERYMEN THAN,
ANY OTHER FORM OF SMALL TRUCK FUEL.
IUPAC CHEMISTS CALL THIS MOLECULE,
3,3 DIMETHYL PENTANE BECAUSE ITS,
2 METHYLS ARE ON THE 3rd CARBON.
THE FASTEST POLICE CARS
USE THIS LONG BORE
SPECIAL GASOLINE
 CH3            CH3
+                 +
H3C + C + CH2 + C + CH3
+                 +
CH3             CH3
PETROLEUM CHEMISTS,CALL THIS MOLECULE
4-5 ISO-NONANE ( 4 methyls + pentane = 9 carbon )
IT IS USED IN LARGE VAN and FLEET FUELS,
FOR MOTORS WITH LONG CYLINDER HEADS.
IT REQUIRES,
PERFECT TIMING and CLEAN AIR FILTERS.
IT IS ALSO USED IN, SMALL SHIP MOTORS,
LARGE OUTBOARD MOTORS,FARM TRACTORS
HELICOPTERS and POLICE MOTOR CYCLES.
IUPAC CALLS IT: 2.2,4.2 TETRA METHYL PENTANE]
UNDECANE = ELEVEN
ISO-UNDECANE
 11.CBN: + 24.HDR:
PETROLEUM CHEMISTS,CALL THIS FUEL,
HIGH BORE UNDECANE and ISO-UNDECANE
IT IS THE SEMI-DIESEL GASOLINE USED
BY ALL JAPANESE TRUCKS,FRENCH TRAINS.
and IN ITALIAN LARGE-SIZE AUTOMOBILES
CH3  CH3  CH3
+         +       +
H3C + C   +   C  +  C + CH3.
+         +       +.
CH3   CH3  CH3

 W 
PARAFFIN WAXES

 DODECANEL IS THE WAX ON CUCUMBERS,
 CORN COB SEEDS and SPAGHETTI SQUASH.
 ITS DISCOVERY, BY MARTIN and WIESE LED,
TO THE CREATION OF MANY SEALING WAXES,
 NOW USED ON GLASS JARS and PAPER CUPS.
DODECANEL = 12.CBN + 26.HDR
  HEXA-DECANEL IS HARDENED BEES WAX
  THE DISCOVERY OF THE EXACT FORMULA
  FOR BEES WAX, LED TO THE CREATION OF
  ALL THE AUTOMOBILE WAXES, MOTOR OILS,
  AND HEAVY WAX BASE GREASES, USED IN,
  THE AUTOMOTIVE and TRUCKING INDUSTRY.
HEXA-DECANEL = 16.CBN + 34.HDR
  SOON,  WAXES BEGAN TO BE CALLED,
  PARAFFINS, BECAUSE THEIR MOLECULES
  ALL HAVE PAIRED, BRANCHING SIDE FINS
  AS YOU CAN SEE BELOW,ON THE LARGEST
  OF THE PARAFFINS FOUND IN PETROLEUM

THIS IS THE 42 CARBON, DI-TETRA-CONTANE,JAR SEALING WAX,
TAKEN FROM PETROLEUM OIL FROM INDIA, CALLED SEALANE 42
SEALANE 42  = 42.CBN + 86.HDR

THIS IS A NATURAL CARNUBA WAX,
USED IN AUTO,TRUCK and BOAT WAXES
IT IS A 18 CARBON,NATURAL ALKANE PARAFFIN
CARNUBANE = 18.CBN + 38.HDR

 
IMPORTANT MOTOR OILS and LUBRICANTS
     DECANEL IS A 10 CARBON, AUTOMOBILE OIL
     NORMALLY CALLED 10-40-10. IT IS MADE FROM
     THE LIGHT SWEET CRUDE OIL OF DENMARK
     and LOUISIANNA PETROLEUM DISTILLATES.
DECANEL  = 10.CBN + 22.HDR
DECANEL IS THE MOTOR OIL,THAT HAS THE
LONGEST, LONGEVITY OF ALL MOTOR OILS
OCTA DECANEL IS A DIESEL OIL OF NORWAY.
IT IS USED BY BUSES, RAILROAD TRAINS,
and SMALL ELECTRIC POWER COMPANYS,
IN EUROPE,SRI-LANKA and LATIN AMERICA
IT MUST BE PREHEATED TO 248°C
BEFORE BEING USED OR IT CREATES,
A THICK BLACK, SMOG MAKING EXHAUST,
THAT NORMALLY LEADS TO THE DEATH,  
OF MOST RAILROAD ENGINEERS and,
BRIDGE  WORKERS FROM EMPHYSEMA
ISO-OCTADECANE
OCTA DECANEL = 18.CBN + 38.HDR
LESSON REVIEW
      NATURAL PETROLEUM,  WHEN IT IS TAKEN FROM THE EARTH,
       CAN CONTAIN FROM 24 TO OVER 100 DIFFERENT SIZED ALKANES.
      COOKING GASES, AUTO FUELS, OILS, LUBRICANTS, WAXES and PARAFFINS
       ARE SOME OF THE ALKANES,THAT ARE FOUND IN NATURAL PETROLEUMS.
      THE ONES SHOWN ABOVE, ACCOUNT FOR 96% OF ALL PETROLEUM
       SOURCED, HYDRO-CARBON, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS NOW MADE.

      THE ALKANES ARE ALL CALLED, SATURATED HYDROCARBONS
ALKANES ALL HAVE THE GENERAL FORMULA
( n )CBN + ( 2n+2 )HDR
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