HOW ATOMS BOND TOGETHER....TO MAKE WATER  
ON A CLEAR DAY,   
HYDRON ATOMS, USUALLY FLOAT ALONE,
IN THE WIND CURRENTS, OF OUTER SPACE..

BUT,  THERE IS A SPECIAL PLACE
IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE,
WHERE HYDRON ATOMS, JOIN TOGETHER.
HYDRON ATOMS FLOATING IN SPACE
( HYDRON = HYDROGENE )
THERE,WHERE THE STRATOSPHERE,
TOUCHES THE TROPOSPHERE,
CHANGES IN THE ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION,
CAUSE THE ELECTRON ORBITAL DIAMETERS,
OF THE HYDRON ATOMS IN THE AIR,
TO EXPAND, JUST FAR ENOUGH AWAY,
FROM THEIR OWN NUCLEUS,TO ALLOW,
THEIR ONE,LONE NEGATIVE CHARGED ELECTRON,  
TO BE ATTRACTED TO THE POSITIVE NUCLEUS,
OF ANOTHER,NEARBY HYDRON ATOM.

   ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION CAUSES
THE ELECTRON ORBITALS TO EXPAND
WHEN THIS HAPPENS,THE ATTRACTION,
OF EACH HYDRON NUCLEUS FOR THE ELECTRON,
FROM THE OTHER NEARBY HYDRON ATOM,
PULLS THE TWO HYDRON ATOMS TOGETHER.
BUT, AS THE TWO ELECTRONS,
BEGIN TO APPROACH EACH OTHER,
THEIR NEGATIVE CHARGES,
EACH BEGIN TO REFLECT AND REPEL,
THE OTHER HYDRON ATOM'S ELECTRON.
THE REPULSIONS IS SO STRONG,
THAT THE TWO ELECTRONS ARE STOPPED IN
THEIR CIRCULAR PATH AROUND THE NUCLEUS,
WHICH CAUSES THEM, TO HOVER,
NEAR TO EACH OTHER
ON THEIR ADJACENT ORBITALS
WITH AN ELECTRON, OF EACH, OF THE ATOMS,
ON EACH SIDE, OF THE POINT OF CONTACT,
OF THE TWO ATOMS,.HOLDING THEM TOGETHER,
BECAUSE EACH ELECTRON, HAS BECOME
ATTRACTED TO, THE OTHER ATOM'S NUCLEUS.
AS THE ELECTRONS APPROACH,
NEAR EACH OTHER,  THEY BEGIN,
TO REPEL THE OTHER ELECTRON.



THE REPULSION, IS SO STRONG,
EACH ELECTRON,IS BLOCKED,
IN ITS ORBITAL PATH AND MUST,
SPIN SLOWLY, NEAR THE OTHER.
BECAUSE,THE OUTER ELECTRON,IN ALL ATOMS,
IS CALLED, THE ATOM'S VALENCE ELECTRON,
THIS TYPE OF BOND IS CALLED,
A CO-VALENT ELECTRON BOND
SINCE,
THE ELECTRONS ARE EQUALLY ATTRACTED,
TO THE NUCLEI, OF BOTH ATOMS,THE TWO ATOMS,
ARE SAID TO, SHARE THE TWO ELECTRONS

IF TWO OR MORE ATOMS,ARE JOINED TOGETHER,
WITH CO-VALENT,OUTER ELECTRON BONDS,
THE ENTIRE GROUP IS CALLED, A MOLECULE.

SMALL MOLECULES
SIMILAR TO A HYDRON MOLECULES
ARE CALLED...MICRO - MOLECULES
LARGE MOLECULES,
WITH MORE THAN 100 ATOMS,
ARE CALLED, MACRO-MOLECULES



THE GASIOUS ATOM, OXYGEN~OCSION
ILLUSTRATED ON THE RIGHT HAS TWO DIAGONAL,
LARGE DIAMETER OUTER ELECTRON ORBITALS -->
WHEN TWO HYDRON ATOMS BOND
TO EACH OTHER THEY ARE CALLED
A HYDRON MOLECULE
 A MOLECULE OF HYDRON
A MOLECULE OF HYDROGEN
UNA MOLECULA DE HIDROGENO







AN OCSION-OXYGEN ATOM
WITH  ITS DIAGONAL ORBITALS


HIGH ABOVE THE EARTH...>>
ABOUT 4 KILOMETERS BELOW,
WHERE THE BLUE VIOLET RADIATION,
CAUSES MOST, OF THE LONE HYDRON ATOMS,
TO UNITE,TO MAKE HYDRON MOLECULES
THE ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION, BECOMES
SO STRONG,IT INCREASES THE DIAMETERS,
THE TWO,DIAGONAL OUTER ORBITALS OF,
OCSION ATOMS, IN THE AIR, BY 18% -22%
THEN,AS SOON AS THE NEGATIVE ELECTRONS,
IN THE TWO,OUTER DIAGONAL ORBITALS OF,
THOSE GASIOUS OCSION ATOMS ARE FORCED,
INTO THOSE TWO MORE DISTANT ORBITALS,


THEY GET ATTRACTED TO THE POSITIVE NUCLEI,
OF NEARBY HYDRON ATOMS and,
IN A FEW SECONDS, BOTH THE HYDRON ATOMS,
MAKE CO-VALENT BONDS WITH,,
THE OCSION GAS ATOM, AS SHOWN RIGHT--->>

WHEN HYDRON ATOMS and OCSION ATOMS BOND,
IN THIS WAY, THEY FORM A MOLECULE OF WATER

THE ATOMS IN ALL LIQUID MOLECULES
 HAVE THESE CO-VALENT ELECTRON BONDS

7.5 KM ABOVE THE EARTH IN
THE ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION STRATA
OCSION-OXYGEN'S ELECTRONS,
MOVE TO A MORE DISTANT ORBITAL
and ARE ATTRACTED TO THE NUCLEI,
OF ANY NEARBY, HYDRON ATOMS


HYDRON ATOMS BONDED COVALENTLY
ONTO A OCSION-OXYGEN ATOM

   IN  WATER  MOLECULES,
   THE HYDRON ATOM'S ELECTRONS,
   BOND NEAR,THE ELECTRONS OF,
   THE OCSION ATOM'S OUTER ORBITALS


CO-VALENT BONDS CAN ALSO EXIST...IN ANY MATERIALS,
MADE OF SIMILAR TYPES OF ATOMIC ELEMENTS ATOMS,

SUCH AS BETWEEN, THE ATOMS IN IRON, ALUMON and COPPER PRODUCTS,
OR IN COMBINATIONS, OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF METALS,
AS IN THE METAL ALLOYS, BRASS, BRONZE, STEEL and STAINLESS STEEL

HOWEVER,
THESE METAL ATOM...TO METAL ATOM....CO-VALENT BONDS,
HAPPEN, ONLY WHEN,  THE METALLIC ATOMS, ARE " SUPER HEATED "
TO WELL ABOVE, THEIR BOILING TEMPERATURE,

FOR THIS REASON,
THIS TYPE OF METAL ATOM TO METAL ATOM...CO-VALENT BOND,
IS CALLED A..HIGH TEMPERATURE CO-VALENT BOND

 THEY ARE NORMALLY MADE, AS SHOWN BELOW
METALS and MIXTURES OF METALS
SUCH AS IRON, STEEL and BRONZE,
HAVE TO BE HEATED, IN CAULDRONS, TO MORE,
THAN THEIR BOILING TEMPERATURE and THEN,
FORCED, INTO A PERMANENT, DURABLE FORM,
IN ORDER, FOR THEM, TO STAY TOGETHER,
HERE YOU SEE, A "H" BEAM, MADE OF ATOMS,
OF IRON and COBALTON, BEING ROLLED,
BETWEEN, GIANT CAST IRON WHEELS AT 1500°C
  FORGING A WHITE HOT STEEL BEAM

THESE HARD, METAL TO METAL..
HIGH TEMPERATURE..CO-VALENT...ELECTRON BONDS
ARE MADE, IN SPECIAL PLACES, CALLED, METAL FOUNDRYS..
WITH LARGE, VERY HEAT RESISTANT, CAST IRON EQUIPMENT,
BY MEN, WHO ARE CALLED,  METALLURGISTS.
IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN, THE CREATION OF DIFFERENT METALS,
YOU STUDY, THE SPECIAL ATTRIBUTES,OF EACH TYPE OF METAL
AT A SCHOOL, THAT TEACHES...ATOMIC PHYSICS,
AND THEN, YOU SPECIALIZE, IN THE TYPE OF METAL WORK,
YOU ARE INTERESTED IN, AT A COLLEGE OF METALLURGY.


THERE IS ANOTHER TYPE OF BOND,
THAT EXISTS BETWEEN METALS AND NON-METALS,
 THAT TYPE OF BOND IS CALLED..." AN IONIC BOND "
THEY ARE NORMALLY FOUND...IN ORES and THE SALTS OF METALS

THESE IONIC BONDS, ARE INTERATOMIC BONDS,
THAT FORM AS A RESULT OF THE  ATTRACTION OF,
THE POSITIVE NUCLEUS...OF A NON-METAL ATOM,
SUCH AS  CLORON, OCSION OR SILICON
UPON AN ELECTRON,  IN AN OUTER ORBITAL,
      OF AN ATOM OF A METAL,
     OR AN ATOM OF A METALLOID,
THAT HAS BEEN EXPANDED, BY INTENSE HEAT
SO MUCH...THAT THE POSITIVE ATTRACTION,
                          OF THE NON-METALS NUCLEUS,
IS STRONGER,
    .....THAN THAT....OF THE METALS' OWN NUCLEUS
THE ATOM, THAT ATTRACTS AND ADDS,
ONE OR MORE ELECTRONS, GETS LARGER

THE ATOM THAT GIVES AWAY, ELECTRONS
                                  GETS,  MUCH SMALLER.

NOTICE,  THAT THE LOANED  ELECTRON,
IS DEEP INSIDE...THE BORROWING ATOM
CHROMIUM DI-CHLORIDE
HOW CROMION BI-CLORIDE
IS MADE
 CLORON  CROMION CLORON
   ATOM      ATOM       ATOMS
A MOLECULE OF
CROMION BI-CLORIDES
CLR + CRM + CLR

  SAFETY INFORMATION
   BECAUSE OF THE LARGE CHANGES,
   IN THE VOLUME, OF ATOMS and CHEMICALS,
   WHEN THEY RE-BOND OR RELEASE THEIR BONDS,
   WHENEVER,GASES and METALS, HAVE IONIC BONDS,     
   IT IS IMPORTANT, THAT YOU KNOW BEFORE,
  THE SIZE AND VOLUME OF ATOMS CHANGE,
   EXACTLY HOW MUCH MORE, VOLUME,
  THE NEW CHEMICALS, ARE GOING TO NEED.
  IN ORDER, TO PREVENT, THE CHEMICALS, FROM EXPLODING,
  OR BOILING OVER AND DESTROYING EQUIPMENT AND LIVES

THAT TYPE OF SAFETY INFORMATION IS SHOWN,
ON SPECIAL REFERENCE TABLES BY CHEM-DATA.COM
THAT SHOW THE CO-VALENT and IONIC DIAMETERS OF THE ATOMS,
OF ALL ATOMIC ELEMENTS, IN THEIR DIFFERENT BOND STATES and,
IN ADDITION,
GIVE THE EXACT AMOUNT...THAT THE VOLUME OF THE ATOMS CHANGE,
FOR EACH TYPE OF ATOMIC ELEMENT, SO THAT YOUR POTS AND VALVES,
ARE LARGE ENOUGH, TO ACCEPT..
THE INCREASED VOLUME OF THE HEATED ATOMS.
MANY THINK, THAT A TIGHTER TOP...TO A POT OR A PRESSURE COOKER,
WILL PREVENT EXPLOSIONS..THAT IS THE FARTHEST....FROM THE TRUTH.
BECAUSE,  
IT IS WHEN..HEATED CHEMICALS..ARE CONTAINED..THEY EXPLODE !

LARGE OPEN POTS....AND PROPERLY SIZED...GAS REMOVAL FUME HOODS,
CAN HELP PREVENT DISASTROUS, BURNS and KEEP A PERSON
FROM BEING BLINDED BY THE FUMES OF ACIDIC GASES.
YOU NEED TO KNOW...HOW TO SIZE THESE, IN ORDER TO WORK SAFELY.
THE SIZING AND SAFETY REFERENCE TABLE IS MADE BY CHEM-DATA.COM